Bitcoin Workshop - IMTC

Proof-of-stake, network scaling and smart contracts (and contingency payments for Sudoku solutions) at 2016 Bitcoin and Blockchain workshop

Proof-of-stake, network scaling and smart contracts (and contingency payments for Sudoku solutions) at 2016 Bitcoin and Blockchain workshop submitted by sjmurdoch to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Proof-of-stake, network scaling and smart contracts (and contingency payments for Sudoku solutions) at 2016 Bitcoin and Blockchain workshop

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Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Edit: TL;DR added in the comments
 
Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analyzed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk-reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralized and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis of why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise, just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction
 
The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since the end of January 2019 with daily transaction rates growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralized and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. The maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realized early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralized, secure, and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in the amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralization. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue dissecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour, no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts, etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as: “A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronize cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next, he states that: "blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”. For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber, and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa, this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network, etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever-changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralized and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimization on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and the University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (66%) double-spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT, etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralization.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently, there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so-called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralized nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics, you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching its transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end-users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public. They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public-facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers. The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translate to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non-custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS; shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralized too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralized in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. The faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time-stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalized: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object-oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: * “all programs have two basic components, data – what the program knows – and behavior – what the program can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviors in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behavior are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.” *
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: OCaml is a general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognized by academics and won a so-called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise, it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts, it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa or Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue: In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships
 
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organizations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggests that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already take advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, Airbnb, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are built on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human-readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They don't just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data, it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community-run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non-custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiative (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggests in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real-time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding of what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures, Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

The truth behind the hacking community

I will gradually add videos/gifs/pictures to support the points I'm making in this thread
Edit 1: Look at the boy go https://imgur.com/a/JT0lCPm
Edit 2: Instant New Account https://imgur.com/a/Fj9p4yX
Translation:
"Seller: Yes
Seller: Your subscription didn't expire yet
Guy: Nope, not in a week or so
Seller: Instant New Account
Guy: But I gotta add more time soon"
Edit 3: https://gfycat.com/tenderwearygroundbeetle
Footage of dude having fun in the lab (Yes, you get your account back when banned with this hack too)
Edit 4: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G0dNxlFVFeY&
Incase the gyfcat link doesn't work, still a video of a dude having fun in the lab
To get a couple of things out of the way.
Your anger only fuels me, so eat a fat one.
No, Nikita/BSG doesn't give a fly little rat's ass about hacking
No seriously, eat a fat one, you're the ones making ALL of this possible.
For starters, I'm an American living in Asia, and I've been working in the video game industry for a LONG time now, I've been in the pro league of legends scene in the Japanese LJL back then in 2015-2016, I've worked for MANY different companies in terms of localization (translation) among other things. (Yes, even indirectly with BSG and their Chinese partners such as streaming platforms and even, TikTok, or as the Chinese people call it, Douyin.)
So, let's get to hacking.
You're not getting rid of the hackers, period, there are many different ways to hack in this game/
You have your run of the mill, ESP, Speed-hack, Aimbot.
and of course, the legendary
A. Radar hack (Using a separate computer to connect to the gaming one, hijack and decode packets sent by the game server, and display ALL the game info including player locations, loots, and etc. onto the second computer screen, usually in the form of a map or radar) used by a lot of the streamers, which is literally undetected-able.
But here's the kicker, I've run the idea of a radar hack with my company's coders/IT people (Because I wanna make my own and sell it, what? eat a fat one), but it ALWAYS boiled down to the last question, without inside help, there's no way to decode the packets and actually know what info they contain.
I don't have concert proof showing how the hack makers manage to get those codes, so I won't make further points until I actually have them.
B. Speed-hack/Aimbot/ESP
To address these hacks, we can't ignore the big ass elephante in the room, Chinese people, Yes, there's a FUCK TON of Chinese hackers, and no, it's no bullshit cultural thing or spiritual shits, it's because there's a fuck ton of Chinese people, that's why.
There are a couple of different hacks you can get very easily in the Chinese market.
The cheap foreign hacks, made by dudes in the western world, cost usually around 50-100 USD/month to use, with virtually no customer support, the majority of the hackers are using these ones.
The "inside" (The makers claim they get the codes from BSG, which is why they can always make the hack work within seconds after each patch) hacks, usually made by Chinese makers, with FULL 24*7 customer support, tech support, cost 200-1000 USD/month to use, These ones are beautiful because they're ban proof, they provide built-in HWID spoofer, and if you're banned at any time using these hacks, the customer support will give you a brand new account no questions asked, yes, even EOD accounts.
The "custom-made" hacks, these ones always range from 1000usd/month plus, and have a limited "Slots", and these ones are almost NEVER banned, and when you are banned using these, just tell the customer support your account level, the stuff you have, within days, you'll be getting an account just like before.
C. The type of players (in the eyes of the hackers) of EFT
The regular players, the hackers usually call them livestock or just animals, they provide a steady source of gears and fun for the hackers.
The big boys (Dalao/大佬 in Chinese), these are the ones that use ALL the functions without hiding, and just straight-up murders dudes for fun.
The workshops/studios, these guys are the ones that just use speed-hacks to run shoreline/lab, take the good stuff, and 'nade themselves, they usually sell rubles on the Chinese market for around 1-2 USD per million
The bosses, these guys don't hack, they just hire 3 hardcore big boys, go to the lab, murders everyone, and just have a field day picking stuff up.
Regular hackers, just dudes that play the game with hacks, nothing big, but they usually try to hide it.
D. How a game of Tarkov ACTUALLY goes if you can see through the walls
70%+ of the games have at least a couple of hackers in them, the games usually start with the workshop speed-hackers rushing into where the valuable loots are, stuff them in their pants, and nade themselves or jump off the roof.
Then, regular hackers will sift through things such as prokills, bitcoins, thermals, and etc. if the loot isn't good enough, then the hackers will usually start picking off geared players to make a profit.
(Recording a couple of Lab/Shoreline videos as we speak)
E. Finally, WHY this is happening?
You people are the ones making this happen, whenever dudes get killed by hackers with suspicious shots, you're the ones rushing to BSG's defense with your
"The guy probably just knows the game better than you, this isn't one of those rushes into combat 'Casual' shooters, you gotta git gud"
or
"Hacking isn't that frequent in this game, this game isn't even mainstream"
Do you know why EFT is getting popular in China?
because streamers and streaming platforms are being paid to endorse the game just like blue hole did with Pubg in China, popular League of Legends streamers are paid millions to switch and promote, and the shitty vicious circle spins round and round.
It's not hard to get rid of hacks, put a speed detection + D/C mechanic, boom, speed hacks gone, put a death cam/report button (Something PUBG refuse to do until like its 2nd-3rd year), boom, you can tell if a hacker killed you, apply VAC/spectating? boom, wallhacks gone.
So if hacking is a thing you can't get rid of in a game, it's pretty much ALWAYS the company doesn't give a shit about it.
You can stop this at any time by simply stop spoiling BSG and take a stand for yourself, but well, some people enjoy dropping the soap for hackers on a regular basis to provide them with fun, I'm a lot of things, but kink shamer isn't one.
submitted by geosmoochieli to EscapefromTarkov [link] [comments]

MiniSwap -- A New Hybrid Incentive Model in DeFi

Cryptocurrency exchanges process over $20 billion in trade volume per day. Most of the transactions are going through centralized exchanges, where the users need to fully trust them for managing their assests and transactions. However, the risk of trusting these centralized exchanges has also been seen. For example, QuadrigaCX, which was the largest cryptocurrency exchange in Canada, lost $19 million of their customers' assets [1].
Decentralized Exchanges (DEXes) have been introduced to address this problem -- they allow traders to purchase and sell cryptocurrencies in a peer-to-peer manner, so no involvement of any trusted party is required. Atomic Swap is one of the promising technology for implementing a DEX. While it enables pure peer to peer trading, it also introduces problems such as unfairness and long confirmation latency. While existing work [2] has provided a solution towards a fair atomic swap protocol, the issue of long confirmation latency is inherent.
Another promising direction is leveraging liquidity pools. With liquidity pools, pairs of assets are reserved for trading. For any pair of assets supported by the liquidity pool, traders can exchange their assets without any third party. As traders can only perform the transactions if there are reserved assets, one core problem is how to attract liquidity providers to provide liquidity by reserving assets. It is not difficult to see that incentive [3,4], which has been a key component of all permissionless blockchains, can be equipped to incentivize liqudity providers. However, flawed incentive designs will lead to attacks and other concerns [5-13].
There are two main types of incentive designs, namely "trans-fee mining" and "liquidity mining". They are different from the Proof-of-X mining in blockchains for reaching consensus (a detailed analysis can be found in the survey [14]). Rather, they are used to incentivise users to join the ecosystem.
"Trans-fee mining" was proposed by FCoin in 2018 [15]. With FCoin, each time a transaction is created, 100% of its transaction fee will be returned in FCoin token to the payer as a reward. This is one incentive design to encourage traders to join the system. However, as FCoin may have no value to the trader, FCoin also introduces extra reward to all coin holders -- 80% of the transaction fee in its native currency (such as ETH) will be distributed to all coin holders. So, traders are incentivized to join the system, becoming a holder of FCoin token, and obtaining a share of the transaction fee of every transaction in the FCoin ecosystem.
While this had successful attracted traders, it is not sustainable. Rather than charging a trader to perform transactions, FCoin rewards traders. Profit-driven traders will create transactions at full speed to earn FCoin token and the share as a token holder. Indeed, the trading volume of FCoin was the top one among all exchange services, and the daily reward can be as high as 6000 BTC [16]. However, once all coins are minted, then the system would lose liveness as there is not enough supply to be distributed.
"Liquidity mining" aims at giving reward to the liquidity providers rather than the traders. There are different ways to implement liquidity mining. Compound [17] is a famous example of protocols deploying liquidity mining. With Compound, users become a liquidity provider by supply assets to a pool and obtain interests for its contribution (similar to depositing money into a bank). Liquidity providers first reserve some assets in the pool and obtain "cToken" of Compound which entitles the owner to an increasing quantity of the underlying asset. Users can use their "cToken" to borrow different assets available on the Compound and pay some interests to Compund. The borrowers may have some quick gains through the financial games [18]. Both borrowers and liquidity providers can withdraw their asset by trading them back with "cToken". Oners of "cToken" can also manage the business direction and decisions of Compound through weighted voting. The potential concern here is that rich users might be able to take over the control of the system.
Uniswap [19] is another popular DEX deploying liquidity mining. Uniswap incentivizes liquidity providers by giving them a share of the earned transaction fees. In particular, Uniswap changes each transaction a 0.3% fee, where 0.25% will be distributed to the liquidity providers, and 0.05% will go to the Uniswap account. One issue is how to incentivize traders. With Uniswap, traders are incentivized by the potential profit it can gain through the price difference between Uniswap and other exchanges. Uniswap price oracle is based on a constant function market makers [20,21], where the product of the number of reserved tokens is a constant. For example, if Uniswap has a pair of X token A and Y token B, then when a user using X' token A to buy Y' token B, the product of the reserved number of tokens should remain the same, i.e., XY = (X+X')(Y-Y'). The price of Uniswap (V1) is also defined in this way. This allows traders to speculate in the exchange market as the asset price on Uniswap is changed dynamically and is different from other exchanges. This, on the other hand, may have a security risk as the price can be easily manipulated. Uniswap (V2) fixed this problem by taking an accumulated price over a period of time [22]. However, as speculation/manipulation becomes harder, the trading volume may decrease.
MiniSwap [23] introduces a hybrid model (a mixture of "trans-fee mining" and "liquidity mining") to address the above issues. MiniSwap provides three types of rewards. For each trade with transaction fee f ETH in MiniSwap, a number of MiniSwap tokens (called MINI) worth 2f ETH will be minted. A (parameterized) portion of the tokens are given to the trader, and the rest are distribued to the liqudity providers. The transaction fee (f ETH) is used to exchange MINI in the liquidity pool. 50% of the obtained MINI will be distributed to all MINI holders, and the other 50% will be destroyed. In this way, both traders and liquidity providers are incentivized to join the ecosystem.
Recall that with FCoin, there is a problem when all coins are minted. MiniSwap has an upper bound (of 500,000 tokens) on the number of tokens can be created every day, and this limit reduces every month until a point where the limit (18,000 tokens) remains unchanged. This guarantees the sustainability of the system as the mining process can last for 100 years. The parameterized ratio of tokens as the reward to the trader and liquidity provider can also strengthen sustainability. It enables the system to dynamically balance the incentive of different parties in the system to make it more sustainable.
Overall, the MiniSwap hybrid model has taken the benefit of both "trans-fee mining" model and "liquidity mining" model, while eliminated the potential concerns. Formally defining and analyzing these models, e.g. through the game-theoretic approach [24], would be an interesting direction.
Reference
[1] The Guardian, Cryptocurrency investors locked out of $190m after exchange founder dies, 2019.
[2] Runchao Han, Haoyu Lin, Jiangshan Yu. On the optionality and fairness of Atomic Swaps, ACM Conference on Advances in Financial Technologies, 2019.
[3] Satoshi Nakamoto. 2008. Bitcoin: a peer-to-peer electronic cash system
[4] Jiangshan Yu, David Kozhaya, Jeremie Decouchant, and Paulo Verissimo. Repucoin: your reputation is your power. IEEE Transactions on Computers, 2019.
[5] Joseph Bonneau. Why Buy When You Can Rent? - Bribery Attacks on Bitcoin-Style Consensus. Financial Cryptography and Data Security - International Workshops on BITCOIN, VOTING, and WAHC, 2016.
[6] Yujin Kwon, Hyoungshick Kim, Jinwoo Shin, and Yongdae Kim. Bitcoin vs. Bitcoin Cash: Coexistence or Downfall of Bitcoin Cash, IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP), 2019.
[7] Kevin Liao and Jonathan Katz. Incentivizing blockchain forks via whale transactions. International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, 2017.
[8] Ayelet Sapirshtein, Yonatan Sompolinsky, and Aviv Zohar. Optimal Selfish Mining Strategies in Bitcoin. Financial Cryptography and Data Security, 2016.
[9] Ittay Eyal and Emin Gün Sirer. Majority Is Not Enough: Bitcoin Mining Is Vulnerable. Financial Cryptography and Data Security, 2014.
[10] Ittay Eyal. The Miner’s Dilemma. IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 2015.
[11] Miles Carlsten, Harry A. Kalodner, S. Matthew Weinberg, and Arvind Narayanan. On the Instability of Bitcoin Without the Block Reward. ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security, 2016.
[12] Kartik Nayak, Srijan Kumar, Andrew Miller, and Elaine Shi. Stubborn mining: generalizing selfish mining and combining with an eclipse attack. IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy, 2016.
[13] Runchao Han, Zhimei Sui, Jiangshan Yu, Joseph K. Liu, Shiping Chen. Sucker punch makes you richer: Rethinking Proof-of-Work security model, IACR Cryptol. ePrint Arch, 2019.
[14] Christopher Natoli, Jiangshan Yu, Vincent Gramoli, Paulo Jorge Esteves Veríssimo.
Deconstructing Blockchains: A Comprehensive Survey on Consensus, Membership and Structure. CoRR abs/1908.08316, 2019.
[15] FCoin, https://www.fcoin.pro
[16] The Block Crypto. Cryptocurrency exchange Fcoin expects to default on as much as $125M of users' bitcoin, 2020.
[17] Compound, https://compound.finance.
[18] Philip Daian, Steven Goldfeder, Tyler Kell, Yunqi Li, Xueyuan Zhao, Iddo Bentov, Lorenz Breidenbach, Ari Juels. Flash Boys 2.0: Frontrunning, Transaction Reordering, and Consensus Instability in Decentralized Exchanges. IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 2020.
[19] Uniswap. https://uniswap.org
[20] Bowen Liu, Pawel Szalachowski. A First Look into DeFi Oracles. CoRR abs/2005.04377, 2020.
[21] Guillermo Angeris, Tarun Chitra. Improved Price Oracles: Constant Function Market Makers, CoRR abs/ 2003.10001, 2020.
[22] Uniswap V2.0 whitepaper. https://uniswap.org/whitepaper.pdf
[23] MiniSwap. https://www.miniswap.org
[24] Ziyao Liu, Nguyen Cong Luong, Wenbo Wang, Dusit Niyato, Ping Wang, Ying-Chang Liang, Dong In Kim. A Survey on Blockchain: A Game Theoretical Perspective. IEEE Access, 2019.
submitted by MINISWAP to u/MINISWAP [link] [comments]

Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analysed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralised and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since end of January 2019 with daily transaction rate growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralised and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. Maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realised early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralised, secure and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralisation. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue disecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as:
“A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronise cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next he states that: >“blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”.* For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralised and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimisation on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (>66%) double spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralisation.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralised nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching their transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public.They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers.The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translates to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS & shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralised too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralised in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. Faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, R&D roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalised: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: > “all programmes have two basic components, data – what the programme knows – and behaviour – what the programme can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviours in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behaviour are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.”
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: > OCaml is a general purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognised by academics and won a so called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities safety is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa for Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue:
In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships  
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organisations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggest that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already taking advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, AirBnB, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are build on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”*
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They dont just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities) also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiatives (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggest in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures & Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
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Hackathon Lisk Alpha SDK based delivered + Lisk as sponsor on the Argentina Crypto Fest event at Cordoba.

Hi all,
On September 27th at Cordoba - Argentina, I had the chance to host an Alpha SDK workshop and later on the participants used it for Hackathon competition about decentralized applications.
It was a great experience, people very liked the SDK and this concept about pre-genesis defined custom transactions along with the possibility of customizing blockchain parameters such as block time, max number of transactions per block, etc..
500 usd in Lisk were given to the winner group (they did a PoC about peer to peer house rental, similar to lisk bills but involving block height records for verifying payment on time).
The next day to the hackathon we also had the Argentina Crypto Fest event ( https://argentinacryptofest.com/ ) with Lisk as one of the sponsors (I contributed with 2016 LSK for having Lisk as sponsor, https://explorer.lisk.io/tx/8573985154717449813).
All this was organized by the American Blockchain Association with collaboration of the ONG Bitcoin Argentina. As part of the sponsors we had very important ones such as the Government of Cordoba and UTN (Universidad Tecnológica Nacional).
In addition to all this I received a proposal From Oscar Medina (thanks for all his support in the hackathon), Engineer Professor from UTN (A very well recognized university from Argentina) to deliver them a knowledge transfer so they can include the Lisk Alpha SDK as part of their lab in a new blockchain chapter they want including in the Informatic Engineering course.
They understood Lisk Alpha SDK is not yet something for production purposes, just for PoCs, but they found it very nice for educative purposes.
I also got an interview from Satoshi Magazine and had the chance to better detail the Lisk vision and its strengths.
I'm sharing some pictures from the Hackathon and the interview in Satoshi Magazine. I'm waiting for the organizers to process some material from the Crypto Fest so I can share that as well.
https://imgur.com/a/zw3QKRm
Kind Regards,
SGDIAS delegate.
submitted by sgdias to Lisk [link] [comments]

What Is KNOWLEDGE BROKER BLUEPRINT: HOW KBB 2.0 METHOD WORKS

KNOWLEDGE BROKER BLUEPRINT BY TONY ROBBINS AND DEAN GRAZIOSI

Knowledge Broker Blueprint is a new winning playbook formula and online business training program created by mastermind legends Tony Robbins and Dean Graziosi and their proprietary MindMint software.
Knowledge Broker Blueprint is the newest 2020 version of Knowledge Business Blueprint which launched in April 2019 (which had over 200,000 people watching its release and over 16,000 people joined). The KBB 2.0 is set up to focus on three core components; course (education), software (tools) and coaching (mastermind).
Dean and Tony are looking to make a lightning strike twice following the success of KBB 1.0. Now with KBB 2.0, they claim to have come back bigger and better than ever to help people start winning at the game of life and business. A “Knowledge Broker” is defined as a person with skill, passion or expertise that shares it with others to create impact and earn profits. Tony and Dean both believe being a Knowledge Broker is the single best thing you can do as an entrepreneur as people are voting with their wallets and paying to learn from professional DOERS instead.
That is the central theme of the Knowledge Broker Blueprint Tony Robbins and Dean Graziosi put together for the launch of KBB 2.0. While there is still more information coming out about the launch of KBB 2.0, here are all of the top-level details we can share about Knowledge Broker Blueprint to start:
Tony Robbins has teamed up with Dean Graziosi to launch a new online training program called Knowledge Broker Blueprint. “KBB” claims it will be one of the biggest online business training course launches in history. While more information is surfacing about the winning playbook found within KBB 2.0, our review of Knowledge Broker Blueprint is broken down into three major sections so you can get a complete overview of what it is, how it works, and what to expect.
To best understand Tony Robbins and Dean Graziosi's Knowledge Broker Blueprint program, our research is in the following format that explores all aspects of KBB 2.0:
1) what is knowledge broker blueprint review 2) who is Tony Robbins 3) Knowledge Broker World Summit
Now, before we jump right into the Knowledge Broker Blueprint review, there is one small minor detail worth mentioning – and that is Tony Robbins fondness of Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies.
Back during the last bull market cycle for crypto assets, Tony Robbins did share a tweet that helped clear up the confusion around Bitcoin with his millions of followers and fans. Also, in addition to tweeting and writing blog posts about bitcoin to educate his audience, he also featured bitcoin in his #1 New York best-selling book, Money: Master the Game where he talked about proper asset allocation in a book where he interviewed the brightest minds and most brilliant financial innovators in the world.
While Knowledge Broker Blueprint isn't focused on bitcoin or cryptocurrencies, it is about business and the future of financial success. This is why Master The Crypto wanted to review Knowledge Broker Blueprint as a fantastic way to self-educate and learn from the right people as the best way to secure success today.
Now, let's dive into all of the research and provide meaningful insight and analysis to how Knowledge Broker Blueprint works, who Tony Robbins is and their Knowledge Broker World Summit event coming up in 2020.

WHAT IS THE KNOWLEDGE BROKER BLUEPRINT?

Tony Robbins and Dean Graziosi have teamed up to launch the Knowledge Broker Blueprint. It’s a combination of a business development plan and a personal development plan.
The Knowledge Broker Blueprint is a live-cast that will take place on February 27. You can opt into the live-cast between February 19 and 26.
Some of the key features of the Knowledge Broker Blueprint include:
The idea behind Knowledge Broker Blueprint is that you can discover the strategies used by some of today’s most successful individuals. What are these people doing to be successful? Knowledge Broker Blueprint claims to teach you these lessons.
The 2020 version of Knowledge Broker Blueprint is officially called Knowledge Broker Blueprint 2.0. It’s the second version of this system.

HOW DOES KNOWLEDGE BROKER BLUEPRINT WORK?

Knowledge Broker Blueprint, also abbreviated to KBB, is an online course consisting of four modules.
The creators of KBB are calling it one of the biggest online course launches in history.
The initial live cast announcing the launch of Knowledge Broker Blueprint had over 250,000 viewers worldwide. That live cast was hosted by Tony Robbins and Dean Graziosi.
In the words of the course’s creator, the course “teaches you how to extract your knowledge, skill, hobby or passion (or someone else’s)”, then identity the people willing to pay for that unique skill or knowledge.
What type of “thing” do you do more effectively than anyone else? What type of knowledge do you have that people may be willing to pay for?
While progressing through the Knowledge Broker Blueprint course, you will use the MindMint software. The software keeps track of your progress.
That’s why Knowledge Broker Blueprint is more than just an education program or software system: it’s a combination of both. Together, the education program and software promise to “allow anyone to start or scale a highly impactful and highly profitable mastermind, group, workshop or community.”
Some people might think, “I don’t even have any unique skills. I can barely use a computer.” That’s fine! As the creator of Knowledge Broker Blueprint explains:
“It doesn’t mater if you don’t have any tech skills or any previous business experience. Everything you need to know is provided in this training program by 3 of the greatest entrepreneurs of our generation.”

WHAT WILL YOU LEARN IN KNOWLEDGE BROKER BLUEPRINT?

Knowledge Broker Blueprint isn’t your typical training course. The entire purpose of the course is to teach you how to leverage your unique knowledge into personal profit.
As the name of the course suggests, Knowledge Broker Blueprint will give you the blueprint you need to broker your knowledge.
As a “knowledge broker”, you are selling your unique knowledge to the world. What type of information can you leverage today? What kind of unique knowledge or skills do you have that people are willing to pay for?
The ultimate goal is to teach you how to run your own mastermind group or mastermind event.
The Knowledge Broker Blueprint course gives you all of the tools you need to set up your mastermind group, the market that mastermind group to the world, and maximize profit from that group.
Keep in mind that you don’t need to know anything to run a mastermind group. Some people run profitable mastermind groups simply by inviting smarter people to the event. If you could get Oprah Winfrey, Elon Musk, and Bill Gates into one room, don’t you think people would buy a ticket? That’s an extreme example, but that’s the type of thinking behind Knowledge Broker Blueprint.

WHAT’S INCLUDED WITH KNOWLEDGE BROKER BLUEPRINT?

Knowledge Broker Blueprint is a completely online course. You get video tutorials, resources, exercises, downloadable worksheets, and access to a private Facebook group. Here’s what you get with Knowledge Broker Blueprint:
  1. Extract It
  2. Fill It
  3. Run It
  4. Knowledge Broker
Each training video ranges in length from 7 minutes to 30 minutes. However, there are some longer training videos that dive deep into topics like Facebook and YouTube advertisements.
The downloadable PDF worksheets, meanwhile, can be printed off before you start a lesson. Fill in the worksheets as you go along. Or, test your knowledge after (or both). It will help you retain the information from the lesson.
Each lesson is also followed by a quiz to verify that you retained the knowledge.
In other words, there’s a lot of content with Knowledge Broker Blueprint. The hours of video will teach you everything you need to know about creating your own mastermind program.
Tony and Dean have packaged years of experience in these videos. They’re distilling their combined 60+ years of industry experience into one concise training program. If you’re willing to put in the work, you can get a lot of priceless information from Knowledge Broker Blueprint.

WHAT IS MINDMINT SOFTWARE?

Knowledge Broker Blueprint 2.0 comes with a software called MintMint. The software walks you through the entire process of setting up an event, including the initial announcement of the event, marketing for the event, planning, execution, and more.
Essentially, MindMint has everything you need to ensure your mastermind event goes off smoothly – and profitably.
MindMint also organizes event information in one place. You can keep information about the trainers, speakers, attendees together, for example, along with the information about the schedule, key dates, and more.
MindMint doesn’t just help plan and organize the event: the software also helps you create a sales funnel for the event. You can get help with everything from your landing page to your final payment page.
In summary, here’s what’s included with the MindMint software:
Planning Support: Event scheduling, itinerary, attendees, hosts, and more.
Announcement Support: Build hype, marketing support, email templates, sales copy, and more
Sales Funnel: Landing page, templates, payment pages, marketing, and more.
And More: MindMint is an all-in-one software that contains everything you need to know about running your own mastermind event from beginning to end.

KNOWLEDGE BROKER BLUEPRINT MODULES

We mentioned above that Knowledge Broker Blueprint comes with four modules, including Extract It, Fill It, Run It, and Knowledge Broker. Below, we’ll explain what you’ll learn in each of those modules:

1. EXTRACT IT

The first module, Extract It, begins with Tony Robbins explaining some crucial lessons on mindset. How do successful people think? What strategies do successful people do differently on a daily basis? Tony Robbins uses his 40+ years of self-help experience to explain the secret mindsets of successful people. Then, Dean breaks down the most important foundational steps you’ll need to cover before creating a business, including:

2. FILL IT

In the second module, Fill It, Tony and Dean will explain marketing tactics to promote your mastermind group. Dean and other experts will teach you how to become a marketing expert with topics like:

3. RUN IT

Run It explains the strategies you need to execute your successful event. You’ve developed your event and marketed it. Now you need to pull it off and amaze attendees. Some of the strategies covered in the third module include:

4. KNOWLEDGE BROKER

Finally, Knowledge Broker lists three aspects of running your own mastermind group, including:

BONUS PRODUCTS INCLUDED WITH KNOWLEDGE BROKER BLUEPRINT

As an early Knowledge Broker Blueprint adopter, you get access to several bonus lessons, including:
Tony Robbins’ Ultimate Edge: Four-part audio system explaining how to create an extraordinary and successful life.
Dean’s Inner Circle: Highlights from Dean’s best Inner Circle training lessons.
Tony Robbins’ Platinum Bonus: Recordings from experts like Jack Bogle and Peter Mallouk.
Russel Brunson’s Mastermind Funnels: Secrets to setting up bulletproof sales funnels.
Tony Robbins’ Priming Exercise: How to give yourself a winning mindset.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQS) ABOUT KNOWLEDGE BROKER BLUEPRINT

Q: On What Day Will the Knowledge Broker Blueprint Livecast Take Place?
A: The Knowledge Broker Blueprint livecast will take place on February 27, 2020.
Q: Who is Tony Robbins?
A: Tony Robbins is a motivational speaker, author, business consultant, and self-help expert. Robbins rose to prominence in the 1980s and 1990s with infomercials and national bestselling books. Today, he continues to be relevant to seminars and other events.
Q: What is the Knowledge Broker Blueprint?
A: The Knowledge Broker Blueprint is an online training course that teaches you how to launch your own mastermind event from beginning to end. It explains how to “broker” knowledge: you’re collecting knowledge (either from yourself or others) and selling that knowledge to the world.
Q: What is a Mastermind Group?
A: A mastermind group is a group or event where you share unique knowledge, skills, or experience with the world.
Q: Is Knowledge Broker Blueprint Legit?
A: Knowledge Broker Blueprint is marketing itself as one of the biggest online course launches in history. There’s a lot of content here, and the course is certainly legitimate. The fact that Tony Robbins has signed on is a big deal.
Q: What is Knowledge Business Blueprint?
A: In 2019, the same team launched a similar event called Knowledge Business Blueprint. In 2020, the team is launching a new event called Knowledge Broker Blueprint, although the two share similar strategies.
Q: Who is Dean Graziosi?
A: Dean Graziosi is an author, investor, entrepreneur, and trainer who grew from poverty to wealth. Today, he teaches others how to replicate that success. Graziosi is leading the Knowledge Broker Blueprint training system in partnership with Tony Robbins.
Now, this concludes our comprehensive review of Knowledge Broker Blueprint – but there is much more ground to cover to understand how Dean Graziosi and Tony Robbins came to be the legends they are today in the world of online business and entrepreneurship. Next, let's revisit the incredible life and story of Tony Robbins, the pioneering Mastermind guru behind KBB 2.0.

WHO IS TONY ROBBINS?

Tony Robbins is an American author, life coach, and philanthropist. The Los Angeles-based entrepreneur is best-known for his infomercials, seminars, and self-help books, including the books Unlimited Power (published in 1987) and Awaken the Giant Within (published in 1993).
Over the years, Robbins has worked individually with clients ranging from Bill Clinton to Wayne Gretzky to Steve Wynn.
By the early 1990s, an estimated 100 million Americans had viewed Tony Robbins infomercials. Many of his books have also become national bestsellers.

TONY ROBBINS: EARLY LIFE AND BIO

Tony Robbins was born in North Hollywood, California on February 29, 1960. He claims to have had a “chaotic” and “abusive” home life throughout his childhood. Robbins is the eldest of three children, and his parents divorced when he was seven. His mother remarried multiple times, including to a former semi-professional baseball player named Jim Robbins, who legally adopted Tony when he was 12.
Tony Robbins was born Anthony J. Mahavoric, although he changed his name to Anthony Jay Robbins after being adopted by Jim Robbins. Although he once went under the name Anthony Robbins, he now mostly goes by Tony Robbins.
When Robbins was 17 years old, he left home and never returned. He later worked as a janitor, and he never attended college.
Robbins began his career promoting events for motivational speaker and author Jim Rohn. In the early 1980s, Robbins developed techniques of neurolinguistic programming (NLP), hypnosis, and firewalking, incorporating these techniques into his seminars.
In 1987, Robbins published his first self-help book. In 1988, Robbins released his first infomercial, advertising himself as a “peak performance coach”.
Robbins’ career took off shortly after. His infomercials later featured celebrities like Pro Football Hall of Fame quarterback Fran Tarkenton and actor Martin Sheen. Robbins claimed to be able to help anyone – from athletes to business people to actors – unlock their maximum potential.
By 1991, an estimated 100 million Americans had viewed Robbins’ infomercials.
Over the years, Robbins has worked individually with many notable names, including Bill Clinton, Wayne Gretzky, Serena Williams, Hugh Jackman, Pitbull, and Justin Tuck.
Robbins is also trusted by some of America’s most notable business names, including Golden State Warriors co-owner Peter Guber and businessmen Steven Wynn and Marc Benioff. In more recent years, he has positioned himself as not just a self-help coach but also has a valuable business consultant.

TONY ROBBINS BIO: WHAT IS HE DOING TODAY?

Although he achieved initial success in the 1980s and 1990s, Tony Robbins continues to be relevant today. In 2015 and 2016, Robbins was listed on the Worth Magazine Power 100 list.
In 2014, Robbins made headlines for teaming up with Mia Hamm, Magic Johnson, and Peter Guber to acquire the rights to the Los Angeles Football Club (LAFC). Along with the LA Galaxy, LAFC is one of two MLS soccer teams in the Los Angeles area. They entered the league in 2018.
In 2016, Robbins got into eSports, purchasing Team Liquid, one of the best-known teams in the industry.
In 2019, the top three names on the Worth Magazine Power 100 list included Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos, China President and General Secretary Xi Jinping, and United States President Donald Trump. The magazine has ranked the top 100 most powerful people in the world every year since 2010.
Tony Robbins also continues to organize seminars through Robbins Research International.
Robbins has starred in infomercials since the 1980s. Today, the 59-year old motivational speaker has teamed up with Dean Graziosi to launch a program called the Knowledge Broker Blueprint.

TONY ROBBINS UNLIMITED POWER (1987)

To understand Tony Robbins and his success, it helps to understand his self-help books.
Tony Robbins’ first big hit, Unlimited Power, became a national bestseller. The book teaches you how to achieve a successful life.
In Unlimited Power, Robbins covers topics like:
The book was well-reviewed, and it remains a classic self-help book even in 2020, 33 years after first being published.

TONY ROBBINS AWAKEN THE GIANT WITHIN (1993)

Six years after publishing Unlimited Power, Tony Robbins published his second self-help hit: Awaken the Giant Within.
The book is subtitled, “How to Take Immediate Control of Your Mental, Emotional, Physical, and Financial Destiny”.
Robbins walks readers through a step-by-step program that teaches fundamental lessons of self-mastery, including how to discover your true purpose, take control of your life, and harness the forces that shape your destiny.
Robbins tells you how to manage your emotions, your body, your finances, and your life. To date, Robbins has sold over one million copies of Awaken the Giant Within, and it became a #1 national bestseller soon after launch.
Now that Master The Crypto has covered who Tony Robbins is and how Knowledge Broker Blueprint works, let's give an overview of their upcoming event happening in October 2020 that coincides with KBB 2.0.

KNOWLEDGE BROKER WORLD SUMMIT

There are many different ways to learn a new skill, a new trade, or just about anything else. Although the conventional option is to read books, those who are looking for guidance from the expert themselves may want to attend a symposium. One particular program that has received some popularity in recent months is the Knowledge Broker World Summit.
According to the program, a knowledge broker is a person with skill, passion, or expertise who shares it with the world for impact and profit. Two individuals head the Knowledge Broker World Summit: Dean Graziosi and Tony Robbins. Graziosi is a best-selling author, entrepreneur, and investor. As for Robbins, is a business chairman and strategist.

KNOWLEDGE BROKER WORLD SUMMIT SPEAKERS

Aside from hearing from Graziosi and Robbins, you’ll also hear from other speakers who can share their knowledge and experience in a conductive manner. For instance, a few of the attendee speakers include:
Additional speakers are being released as well. Those who register for the program and get their tickers will be notified of the new speakers are they are announced.

WHAT TO EXPECT

The Knowledge Broker World Summit is an event that may be able to provide attendees with guidance concerning how to achieve your goals and desires. As the program platform explains it shares education and wisdom on how to achieve abundance, fulfillment, and success. In addition, it provides direction on how attendees can escape the 9-5 grind, how they can create a legacy, and how to discover the “new you.” Keep in mind that while it all sounds promising, it is important to be aware that these are guiding principles. What may work for one individual does not always work for all.

POSITIVE FEEDBACK

There is also feedback from various individuals on what they “have to say” about the Graziosi and Robbins. It is unknown whether the comments are directed at the program. Nonetheless, the comments on the website are from Serena Williams, Larry King, Richard Branson, and Marie Menounos. Further, the comments are quite positive as well.

TICKET OPTIONS

Those who are interested in the program have several ticket options available, which are as follows:
Option 1: Executive Seating for $323.00. This ticket option comes with 3-day access to the event and general entrance and seating. It also includes exclusive Knowledge Broker merchandise available at the live summit
Option 2: Preferred Seating. This ticket option comes with 3-day access to the vent, preferred entrance and seating, and Knowledge Broker merchandise available at the live summit
Option 3: VIP. This ticker option comes with 3-day access to the event, VIP entrance and seating, and VIP networking party. It also includes Knowledge Broker merchandise available at the live summit
The tickets can be purchased on the platform’s website.
Now, let's conclude our Knowledge Broker Blueprint review and get ready for an incredible launch and presentation by two legendary entrepreneurs who are self-educated and bringing their knowledge to the world via KBB 2.0.

FINAL WORD ON KNOWLEDGE BROKER BLUEPRINT

Tony Robbins is a self-help master who rose to prominence in the 1980s and 1990s. Today, he’s a valued business consultant, author, and motivational speaker. The fact that he has partnered with Dean Graziosi to launch Knowledge Broker Blueprint is a big deal. These guys are both household names in the online business industry and have already done this once with the Knowledge Business Blueprint. With KBB 1.0, they learned, grew, and got vital intel and feedback from their members. Now they have revamped everything for the creation of KBB 2.0 and are promising it to be unlike anything you have ever seen in the world of online marketing and entrepreneurialship.
As the saying goes with all of Master The Crypto's guides, analysis and insights – there are two things every aspiring successful person must do to achieve success optimally:
1) follow the right people 2) act on the right information
Tony Robbins and Dean Graziosi are the right people to follow and Knowledge Broker Blueprint is the right information to act on. Their three-step process found within the Knowledge Broker Blueprint course (education), software (tools) and coaching (mastermind) is guaranteed to be dynamic, dynamite and dominant.
The Knowledge Broker Blueprint livecast will take place on February 27, 2020. Set your calendars. Be sure not to miss the free live KBB 2.0 event and be prepared to be blown away by two industry giants and their legendary methods for teaching people how to create success, freedom and wealth in life.
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Scaling Bitcoin 2016 Milan - Day 2 - Morning Workshop on Bitcoin: Introduction - Stefan Dziembowski Workshop on Bitcoin: Introduction (cont.) - Stefan Dziembowski Workshop on Bitcoin: Smart Contracts and Applications (cont.) - Stefan Dziembowski Workshop on Bitcoin: Alternative Cryptocurrencies (cont.) - Stefan Dzimbowski

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Scaling Bitcoin 2016 Milan - Day 2 - Morning

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